International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Area (ICARDA)

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ICARDA (International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Area) works on techniques to enhance agriculture productivity and various research to enhance existing technology. It focuses primarily on pulses and spineless cactus. It covers 14 districts in Odisha namely Sambalpur, Bargarh, Kalahandi Koraput, Baleshwar, Rayagada, Balangir, Mayurbhanj, Khurda, Ganjam, Gajapati, Nayagarh, Keonjhar and kandhamal. Spineless cactus sowing covers 11 districts apart from Sambalpur, Bargarh and kandhamal whereas pulses cover all 14 districts.

ADARSA in association with ICARDA covers 3 districts in Odisha namely Sambalpur, Bargarh, Kalahandi. In Sambalpur it covers 3 blocks- Jujumura, Jamankira and Naktideul. In Jujumura it covers 3 Gram Panchayat (GP) each GP covering 4 villages totalling 12 villages.

Various pulses- Black gram, Green gram, Lentil, Chickpea, Grass pea and Wheat are sowed.  In Kalahandi spineless cactus consisting 24 varieties are sowed. They are sowed in degradable land to make maximum use of unutilised resources.

During the period various researches are conducted to get different varieties of pulses and study on which variety which suit to which soil is conducted. The detailed analysis is captured in around 10 pages biomedical report and are provided to farmers to further enhance their understanding and to know whether they benefit and to what extent.

Line sowing technique was incorporated against traditional Broadcasting technique. It was found that the seed consumption per acre was drastically reduced and better productivity was archived thereby reducing expenditure. Both the technique was incorporated side by side and the visible changes were brought in front of farmers. Further various GP trail were conducted in front of government officer in 5*5 metre land covering 220 plots. It showed noticeable difference between both the techniques.

 

This project further helped farmers in understanding per acre consumption (30kg) of fertiliser. Harman (vitamin) spray which costed around Rs 400-500 was replaced with DAP which costed around Rs10. This drastically reduced the costing in maintaining crop health. Further better productivity of 5 quintal per acre was achieved in contrast to 3 quintal per acre with 2% DAP use (15gm in around 10-15litre).

Before sowing moisture content in soil was monitored and appropriate water requirement was met. Priming to soak seeds in water to enhance germination was incorporated in some situations.

 

   

Seed treatment where per kg, 2gm babstin/thiram powder/ tricodama bridi powder was used and it was kept for around 7 days in a pot. This technique spread across 40 plots.

Rhizobium culture was followed to gain better productivity. Rhizobium is a bacteria found in soil that helps in fixing nitrogen in leguminous plants. It attaches to the roots of the leguminous plant and produces nodules. These nodules fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert it into ammonia that can be used by the plant for its growth and development.

 

 

Through this use of advanced technology, seed system and improved buying patterns, farmers less spent less, duration was reduced and less watering was required. Short duration seed were given free to farmers on trial basis. Till now out of 96 hectors in Kalahandi, 40 hectors spineless Cactus sowing is done.

 

 

 

 

Watershed

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Watershed:

Rainfed areas assume special significance in terms of agricultural productivity and livelihood for millions of rural households in India. These areas not only constitute nearly 57 per cent of the cultivated area but also account for production of bulk of millets, pulses and oilseeds. Rainfed agriculture although is a risk-prone activity, have the potential to contribute a larger share in the food grain production, if managed properly. These high potential rainfed areas provide us with opportunities for faster agricultural growth compared to irrigated areas that have reached a plateau. In the context of climate change, watershed management plays an important role in mitigating weather induced risks, building resilience and strengthening adaptive capacities. In times of drought, it captures rainfall in-situ, recharging ground water sources. In times of cloud bursts or intense rains, it helps control floods, reduces soil erosion and minimizes losses to livelihoods, infrastructure and life. Forests, afforestation and revived grassland sustain biodiversity, retain water and moisture in soils and microenvironments for longer periods and reduce the adverse impacts of extreme climate events. It provides the environmental resources that can enable affected communities to better cope with such shocks and adapt to them. Hence, watershed development is the mainstay for climate change adaptation. In the context of climate change, watershed management plays an important role in mitigating weather induced risks, building resilience, and strengthening adaptive capacities. In times of drought, it captures rainfall in-situ, recharging ground water sources. In times of cloud bursts or intense rains, it helps control floods, reduces soil erosion and minimizes losses to livelihoods, infrastructure and life. Forests, afforestation and revived grassland sustain biodiversity, retain water and moisture in soils and micro-environments for longer periods and mitigate the effects of soaring temperatures on living beings. Watershed management, thus, helps reduce the adverse impacts of extreme climate events. It provides the environmental resources that can enable affected communities to better cope with such shocks and adapt to them. Hence, watershed development is the mainstay for climate change adaptation.

    

Watershed development involves the following components / sectors:

i) Human resource development (community development);

ii) Soil and land management (conservation and use);

iii) Water management (conservation and use);

iv) Afforestation;

v) Pasture (Fodder) development;

vi) Agricultural development;

vii) Livestock management; and

viii) Rural energy management

   

Action taken:

NABARD has been implementing participatory watershed development programmes for more than two decades with an aim to reduce risk associated with dry land farming systems and livelihood through holistic development involving soil and moisture conservation, productivity enhancement measures, alternative livelihood interventions, etc. The uniqueness of these programmes is people's participation in planning, implementation of the projects, monitoring as well as financial management through community-based organisations. All project villages have systematic watershed treatments implemented from ridge to valley. Keeping in mind the specificities of climate variability (rising temperatures and erratic rainfall), as a part of watershed development effort, certain activities were emphasized like conservation and planting of local indigenous plant species; digging of water absorption trenches on the upper, middle and lower portions of hillsides, with planting of grasses and vegetation that stabilize these and bind soils; designing of water impounding structures that are strong enough to withstand high intensity runoffs or which can “fail safely” (a larger number of smaller structures); prioritized soil conservation measures (land treatments) while dovetailing these with water harvesting structures (drainage treatments); changes in cropping and land use patterns to include water – sipping crops (such as millets), tree-based and mixed farming systems; introduction of “water budgeting” at the community and farm level as well as conservation irrigation technologies (micro-irrigation systems) to determine which crops can be cultivated given the available water etc.

 

 

 

 

eShakti

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ADARSA as an organisation covers 3270 SHG groups which covers 5 out of 9 blocks in Sambalpur namely Jujumura, Naktideul, Rairakhol, Maneswar, Dhankoda.

Around 109 animators are present for data collection through eShakti app each covering around 30-40 SHGs. Five parameters that regulate the monitoring of animators include Meeting, Attendance, Monthly savings, Loan disbursement and Loan Repayment data based on which an animator is contacted in case of any default.

 

Monthly statements are generated and are distributed through animators to various SHGs. Each SHG’s monthly statement having a unique id is generated. It contains member wise receipts and payments, consolidated savings, bank loan and internal loan,etc.

 

About EShakti

EShakti or Digitisation of SHGs is an initiative of Micro Credit and Innovations Department of NABARD in line with our Hon'ble PM statement, 'we move with the dream of electronic digital India...'. Digital India is a Rs 1.13-lakh crore initiative of Government of India to integrate the government departments and the people of India and to ensure effective governance. It is to "transform India into digital empowered society and knowledge economy".

Keeping in view the Government of India's mission for creating a digital India, NABARD launched a project for digitisation of all Self Help Group (SHG) in the country. The project is being implemented in 100 districts across the country.

 

Aims and Objectives:

The project aims at digitisation of all the SHG accounts to bring SHG members under the fold of Financial Inclusion thereby helping them access wider range of financial services together with increasing the bankers' comfort in credit appraisal and linkage by way of:

Integrating SHG members with the national Financial Inclusion agenda;

Improving the quality of interface between SHG members and Banks for efficient and hassle free delivery of banking services by using the available technology;

Facilitate convergence of delivery system with SHGs using Aadhaar linked identity.

 

The Background:

The need of digitisation of records of SHGs has been felt for quite some time due to patchy and delay in maintenance of books of accounts. Transparent and proper maintenance of records of SHGs will facilitate in nurturing and strengthening of SHGs.

It is also felt that digital empowerment will help in bringing SHGs on a common web based e-platform by making book keeping easy for low literacy clients. This will help in promoting national agenda of Financial Inclusion and pave the way of credibility of SHG data which can later be used by Credit Bureaus to reduce the issues related to multiple financing by banks.

 

Components of the Project:

  • Mapping of the existing SHGs in the district (bank wise, branch wise);
  • Training of volunteers to collect SHG wise/ member wise data;
  • Data feeding through a customised software in central server;
  • Hosting of data on the web under a dedicated website i.e. www.eshakti.nabard.org ;
  • Maintaining data centre and data recovery centre;
  • Regular update of the transactional data
  • Generating MIS for various users.

Process:

Information of all the SHGs and their members are uploaded onto the website. The transactions are updated through 'apps' on android Mobile/Tablet. Data authenticity is ensured through SMS alerts to members and sample audits. MIS reports on groups are generated and progress is tracked on a real time basis. Overall, the whole ecosystem was designed to address the complex issue related to patchy financial records of SHGs.

 

Information captured:

@Member Level:

Name, address, gender, marital status, Physically Challenge status, Aadhaar details, Voter ID card details, mobile number, BPL/APL status, membership of any Joint Liability Group (JLG), house type, availability of toilets, electricity connection and other financial details like saving bank account number, savings, borrowing & repayment, life/ medical insurance, micro pension policy (if any).

 

@SHG level:

Name, address, date of formation, name of SHPI/NGO, programme under which supported, savings habits, lending policy, bank linkage, details of periodic savings collected and internal lending, utilisation of bank credit availed for members.

 

Output and MIS:

  • Member wise details of SHGs on saving, lending, attendance;
  • SHG and member wise credit history;
  • Financial statement of SHGs - Balance sheet and Profit and Loss account;
  • Grading chart of SHGs;
  • Micro Credit Plan of the SHGs;
  • Audit report;
  • Bank linkage details - savings and credit disbursement;
  • Other periodical MIS on performance of SHGs.

Impact:

  • Provided credit to SHGs based on real time performance;
  • Significantly reduced Saving-Credit linkage gap;
  • Captured credit history of members;
  • Promoted transparency through real time SMS alerts in 10 languages to members;
  • Aided convergence of SHGs with other Government Programmes;
  • Integrated members with the larger Financial Inclusion Agenda;

Paving way for Credit Linkage:

  • Bank branches to access the portal through Intranet or web link using their branch IFSC and password;
  • More than 31 MIS reports like Savings, meeting, Credit linkage, Repayment and Demand Collection Balance can be generated sitting in the Bank branch itself;
  • Easier processing of loan using EShakti system generated prefilled application forms with all the members and group information.;

Challenges:

  • Sourcing of information from poor database and records;
  • Large scale training and capacity building of SHGs, SHPIs and others involved in implementation of the programme;
  • Capture of field level information from SHGs in a limited time and periodic upload of savings and credit details of SHGs;
  • Cooperation from banks;
  • GPRS connectivity;
  • Initial funding of the pilot is being met by NABARD. There will be a huge fund requirement for scaling this pilot from the present level to 86 lakh SHGs across the country.

 

 

 

Odisha Alliance for Child Rights (OACR)

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OACR (Odisha Alliance for Child Rights) is an initiative run by ADARSA in collaboration with UNICEF to create awareness about child rights.

 

In Urban sector ADARSA covered 3 wards covering 9 slums which included around 300 children. Two child researcher per ward were selected totalling 6 child researchers who approached various stakeholders. It included 9 Anganwadi workers, 9 school teachers.

In Rural sector ADARSA covered 3 Gram Panchayat covering 9 villages which included around 300 children. Two child researcher per GP were selected totalling 6 child researchers who approached various stakeholders. It included 9 Anganwadi workers, 9 school teachers and 3 Sarpanch or ward members.

   

Under this program Focussed Group Discussion (FGD) was run over across 18 location spanning 9 villages and 9 slums. These FGDs addressed around 1287 children. In these FGDs children brought issues directly Infront of children in form of a questionnaire where various issues were addressed like Whether Safe Drinking water is available, whether proper Sanitation and Hygiene facilities are available, Whether the school has Eco-club or not, etc. Apart from there they were also trained of how to save themselves from sexual abuse through Body Mapping technique.

 

These issues were then presented at district level in front of CWC (Child Welfare Committee), DCPO (District Child Protection Officer), DLO (District Labour Officer), etc where the children directly presented their issues in front of the dignitaries. From these 30 districts they were further brought at state level in front of Health minister, Education minister, Women and Child Development department.

 

Computer Based Literacy Program (CBFL)

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CBFL (Computer Based Literacy Program) is an initiative by ADARSA to educate people between age group 18-60years. It started in the year 2017 covering 25 villages including Dhankauda, Maneswar, Jujumura. A batch of 50 people were addressed at a time where basic training on number counting and alphabet were given so that people could write their name, their village name, etc. This project ran for 1 year till 2018 where it successfully gave basic education to around 1250 people.

With the success it achieved in past and a motive to further remove illiteracy it again started in 2020 covering 25 villages including Maneswar, Dhankauda block of Sambalpur district. This time the batch was split into two of 25 members each to provide better delivery.